D

Dashboard

A data visualization method and workflow management tool that brings together useful information on a series of screens and/or web pages. Some of the information that may be contained on a dashboard includes reports, web links, calendar, news, tasks, e-mail, etc. When incorporated into a Decision Support System,  key performance indicators (KPI’s) may be represented as graphics that are linked to various hyperlinks, graphs, tables and other reports. The dashboard draws its information from multiple sources applications, office products, databases, Internet, etc.

OR

The presentation of the KPIs or Key business measurements on a  single interface designed for quick interpretation, often using graphics. The most effective dashboards are supported by a full data mart that enables drilling down into more detailed data to better understand the indicators.

Data Administration

The process of managing the institutional data in order to provide reliable, accurate, secure and accessible data to meet strategic and management needs at all levels of the enterprise. It is the purpose of this process to improve the accuracy, reliability, and security of the institution’s data; reduce data redundancy; provide ease of access, assuring that data are easily located, accessible once located, and clearly defined; and to provide data standards. It is also the purpose of the Data administration function to educate the user community on institutional data policies and to encourage the responsible use of data.

Data Acquisition

The process of extracting, transforming, and transporting data from the source systems and external data sources to the data warehouse database objects.

Data Access

The process of accessing the data warehouse database objects using various tools such as analysis, reporting, query, statistical, and data mining.

Data Aggregation

The process of redefining data into a summarization based on some rules or criteria. Aggregation may also encompass de-normalization for data access and retrieval.

Database

A collection of data, usually in the form of tables or files, under the control of a database management system.

Database Architecture

The collective application and database instances that comprise the complete system and describes how data is organized and structured to support the development, maintenance, and use of the data by application systems. This includes the guidelines and recommendations for historical retention of the data, and how the data is to be used and accessed.

Database Administrator

A person (or group of people) responsible for the maintenance and performance of a database.

Database Index

A mechanism to locate and access data within a database. An index may quote one or more columns and be a means of enforcing uniqueness on their values.

Database Instance

One set of database management processes and an allocated area in memory for managing those processes. Typically, a database instance is associated with one database. Note that a database instance may process data for one or more applications.

Database Management System (DBMS)

A software environment that structures and manipulates data, and ensures data security, recovery, and integrity.

Data Cleansing

The transformation of data in it’s current state by verifying and correcting data using a series of business rules for validation and specifying how to handle cases that fails the checks. The values of the attributes cab be converted in to standardized format using packaged software or program modules.

Data Definition

The specification of a data element to be maintained. The specification includes datatype, size, and rules about processing: for example, derivation and validation

Data Dictionary

A part of a database that holds definitions of data elements, such as tables, columns, and views. The place where information about data that exists in the organization is stored. This should include both technical and business detailed about each data element.

Data Extraction

The process of pulling data from operational and external data sources in order to prepare the source data for the data warehouse environment.

Dataflow Diagramming

A technique for expressing the significant dataflows of a business system.

Data Integration

The movement of data between two co-existing systems. The interfacing of this data may occur once every hour, once a day, etc.

Data Integrity

The quality of the data residing in the database objects. The measurement which users consider when analyzing the value and reliability of the data.

Data Integrity Testing

Verification that converted data is accurate and functions correctly within a single subsystem or application.

Data Map

A technique for establishing a match, or balance, between the source data and the target data warehouse database object. This technique identifies data shortfalls and recognizes data issues.

Data Mart

A data warehouse data class organized for a business functional area or department. The database contains data summarized at multiple levels of granularity and may be designed using relational or multidimensional database structures.

Data Mart Data Model

The logical representation of the specific information requirements organized around a department of functional area.

Data Model

A representation of the specific information requirements of a business area. This can be either CDM (Conceptual Data Model) or LDM (Logical Data Model).

Data Mining

The process of researching data marts and data warehouses to detect specific patterns in the data sets. Data mining may be performed on databases and multidimensional data cubes with ad-hoc query tools and OLAP software. The queries and reports are typically designed to answer specific questions to uncover trends or hidden relationships in the data.

Data Partitioning

A technique to improve application performance or security by splitting tables across multiple locations.

Data Registry

The master copy of the data associated with a business object. Several databases may share access to a common data registry to ensure consistency and eliminate redundant entries across multiple applications and databases. An example of a data registry would be a shared customer master. All updates and changes would be made to the customer master data registry and then propagated to subscribing sites. All systems requiring customer information would interface with the customer data registry.

Data Registry Interface

An interface that transfers data registry data between similar or dissimilar applications.

Data Replication

The copying of data to and from sites to improve local service response times and availability; frequently employed as part of a backup and recovery strategy.

Datastore

A temporary or permanent storage concept for logical data items used by specified business functions and processes.

Data Scrubbing

The process of manipulating or cleaning data into a standard format. This process may be done in conjunction with other data acquisition tasks.

Data Source

An operational system, third-party organization, or external system that provides the data to support the information requirements of the client. The data source is accessed during the data acquisition process.

Data System of Record

For an item that is populated across multiple systems (like social security number) name the source system.

Data Transfer

The physical movement of data between applications, perhaps across sites.

Data Transformation

The process of redefining data based on some predefined rules. The values are redefined based on a specific formula or technique.

Data Translation

The process of redefining data in a manner differing between its original representation and its final representation.

Data Transportation

The process of moving and loading the transformed data into the data warehouse database objects.

Data Warehouse

An enterprise structured repository of subject-oriented, time-variant, historical data used for information retrieval and decision support. The data warehouse stores atomic and summary data. The data warehouse is the source data stored in the data marts.

Data Warehousing

The process of designing, building, and maintaining a data warehouse system.

Data warehouse administrator (DWA)

A person or group of people that administer and manage a data warehouse

Data Warehouse Data Model

The logical representation of the historical information requirements structured for the enterprise.

Data Warehouse Integration

The process on reconciling each data warehouse increment with the strategic data warehouse architecture.

Data Warehouse Method (DWM)

A structured method for full life-cycle custom development data warehouse projects.

Data Validation

The process of ensuring correct data based on error and exception handling rules. This process directly impacts data integrity.

Decision Support System (DSS)

An application primarily used to consolidate, summarize, or transform transaction data to support analytical reporting and trend analysis.

Deliverable

A tangible, measurable output of a task.

De-normalization

A database design activity that restructures a database by introducing derived data, replicated data, and/or repeating data to tune an application system and increase performance.

Dimensional Model

A type of data modeling suited for data warehousing. In a dimensional model, there are two types of tables: dimensional tables and fact tables. Dimensional table records information on each dimension, and fact table records all the “fact”, or measures.

Dimension Table

A table that contains discrete values (usually a countable text field like school or degree). Also see fact table. Imagine viewing a spreadsheet. The row and column names would be the dimensions and the numeric data within would be the facts.

Dependency

The relationship of one task to another where the start or end date of the second task (successor) is constrained by the start or end date of the first (predecessor).

Derived Attribute

A value that is derived by some algorithm from the values of other attributes; for example, profit, which is the difference between revenue and expense.

Derived Column

A value derived by some algorithm from the values of other columns; see also DERIVED ATTRIBUTE, DERIVED DATA ITEM , and DERIVED FIELD. Derived Data Item A value derived by some algorithm from the values of other data items; for example, profit, which is the difference between revenue and expense.

Dimension

A multidimensional structure which represents a side of a multidimensional cube. Each dimension represents a different category, such as region, time, product type. Discovery The evaluation and validation of the implemented data warehouse increment, experiences and lessons learned, and scope for next increment to be developed.

Dimensional Model

A type of data modeling suited for data warehousing. In a dimensional model, there are two types of tables: dimensional tables and fact tables. Dimensional table records information on each dimension, and fact table records all the “fact”, or measures.

Dimension Table

A table that contains discrete values (usually a countable text field like school or degree). Also see fact table. Imagine viewing a spreadsheet. The row and column names would be the dimensions and the numeric data within would be the facts.

Distributed Database

A database that is physically located on more than one computer processor. It is connected via some form of communications network. An essential feature of a true distributed database is that users or programs work as if they had access to the whole database locally.

Distributed Processing

The ability to have several computers working together in a network, where each processor runs different activities for a user, as required.

Domain

A set of business validation rules, format constraints, and other properties that apply to a group of attributes or database columns; for example: a list of values, a range, a qualified list or range, or any combination of these.

Drill-Down

The ability of a data-mining tool to move down into increasing levels of detail in a data mart, data warehouse or multi-dimensional data cube. Data analysis to a child attribute

Drill Up

The ability of a data-mining tool to move back up into higher levels of data in a data mart, data warehouse or multi-dimensional data cube. Data analysis to a parent attribute.

Drill Across

Data analysis performed across dimensions.

Data Element

The smallest unit of data that is named. The values are stored in a column or a field in a database.

Data Governance

The practice of organizing and implementing policies and procedures and standards for the effective use of an organization’s structured or unstructured information assets.

Data Visualization

Technique for presentation and analysis of data through visual objects, such as graphs, charts, images and specialized tabular formats.

Derived Fact

A fact that is calculated on the fly and not stored in the database.